Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(/ˈrɑːmən/; 7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist who made groundbreaking works in the field of light scattering. With his student K. S. Krishnan, he discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light change wavelength and amplitude. This phenomenon was a new type of scattering of light and was subsequently known as the Raman effect (Raman scattering). His works earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics and was the first non-white, Indian or Asian person to receive a Nobel Prize in any branch of science
Raman was honoured with many honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. He was member of the Deutsche Akademie of Munich, Swiss Physical Societyof Zürich, Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, Royal Irish Academy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Optical Society of America and Mineralogical Society of America, Romanian Academy of Sciences, Catgut Acoustical Society of America, and Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
In 1924, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. However, he resigned from the fellowship in 1968 for unrecorded reasons, the only Indian FRS ever to do so.
He was the President of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was the founder President of the Indian Academy of Sciences from 1933 till his death. He was member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in 1961.
- In 1912, Raman received the Curzon Research Award, while still working in the Indian Finance Service.
- In 1913, he received the Woodburn Research Medal, while still working in the Indian Finance Service.
- In 1928, he received the Matteucci Medalfrom the Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze in Rome.
- In 1930, he was knighted. An approval for his inclusion in the 1929 Birthday Honourswas delayed, and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India, conferred him Knight Bachelor in a special ceremony at the Viceroy's House (now Rashtrapati Bhawan) in New Delhi.
- In 1930, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him." He was the first Asian and first non-white to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him, Rabindranath Tagore(also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.
- In 1930, he received the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society.
- In 1941, he was awarded the Franklin Medalby the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.
- In 1954, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna.
- In 1957, he was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957.
Posthumous recognition and contemporary references :
- India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928.
- Postal stamps featuring Raman were issued in 1971 and 2009.
- A road in India's capital, New Delhi, is named C. V. Raman Marg.
- An area in eastern Bangalore is called CV Raman Nagar.
- The road running north of the national seminar complex in Bangalore is named C. V. Raman Road.
- A building at the Indian Institute of Sciencein Bangalore is named the Raman Building.
- A hospital in eastern Bangalore on 80 Ft. Rd. is named the Sir C. V. Raman Hospital.
- There is also CV Raman Nagar in Trichy, his birthplace.
- Raman, a lunar crater is named after C. V. Raman.
- C. V. Raman Global University was established in 1997.
- In 1998, the American Chemical Society and Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science recognised Raman's discovery as an International Historic Chemical Landmark at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in Jadavpur, Calcutta, India. The inscription on the commemoration plaque reads:
At this institute, Sir C. V. Raman discovered in 1928 that when a beam of coloured light entered a liquid, a fraction of the light scattered by that liquid was of a different color. Raman showed that the nature of this scattered light was dependent on the type of sample present. Other scientists quickly understood the significance of this phenomenon as an analytical and research tool and called it the Raman Effect. This method became even more valuable with the advent of modern computers and lasers. Its current uses range from the non-destructive identification of minerals to the early detection of life-threatening diseases. For his discovery Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.
- Dr. C.V. Raman University was established in Chhattisgarh in 2006.
- On 7 November 2013, a Google Doodlehonoured Raman on the 125th anniversary of his birthday.
- Raman Science Centre in Nagpur is named after Sir C. V. Raman.
- Dr. C.V. Raman University, Bihar was established in 2018.
- Dr. C.V. Raman University, Khandwa was established in 2018.